The Military Police (MP) were established on 21 January 1991 as a unit in the Army of The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. Its role and missions were primarily defined by National Council of Slovak Republic Act, the Law of the Military Police no. 124/1992 Collection of Laws. The MP are a special law enforcement body that is authorized to operate within the Armed Forces. The MP are headed by the MP Chief, who reports directly to the Minister of Defence of the Slovak Republic. The MP also oversee observance of law including criminal proceedings.
On 01 January 1993 The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic split up into two independent republics - The Czech Republic and The Slovak Republic. At the same time, the Army of The Slovak Republic was established, which also included the Military Police. Since that momentum, modern history of the Slovak Military Police has been recorded as an integral part of the Army of The Slovak Republic.
The development of the Military Police of The Slovak Republic initiated legislative standards necessary to be adopted in the new legislative system. The new basic document, namely the Military Police Act describing MP functions, authorities and capabilities, underwent the legislative process in March 1993. On 01 September 1994, the General Staff of The Slovak Republic Army changed the organizational structure of troops, the same did the Military Police.
Due to amendments introduced to the state Criminal Procedure Code in 1995 and in order to ensure independence of the MP during investigation, the Military Police were taken from the Army units’ chain of command and were transferred under direct command of the GS of the Slovak Republic Army. There was also issued an order by the Chief of General Staff (no. 01/1995), which dealt with the principle of synergy between the Military Police and command authorities.
On 01 February 1995, a new service supply department was established, for the Military Police. Its tasks were to logistically support all MP operations and activities within the Slovak Republic territory and abroad.
Year 1995, was perceived as a very effective one with intensive activities of the MP which resulted in close cooperation among the Slovak Republic Army and other state law enforcement entities in the Slovak Republic. As a result, there was an agreement signed between the law enforcement parties, including the MP. In a similar way, international cooperation with the counterparts of the neighbor countries intensified. On 26 October 1995, a mutual agreement was signed between the MOD of the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic which stipulated close cooperation between both Military Police Forces in different areas of interest with the aim of improving interoperability, supporting common training and exchanging experience from operations and exercises in order to generally improve MP capability.
Later on, when recognized as one of the important Law and Enforcement entity within MOD, the Slovak Military Police became the Ministry of Defense coordinator for following the government resolutions no.482/1999 - Crime Prevention Strategy, no. 483/1999 - A Comprehensive Program of Combating Crime, no. 493/1999 - A Set of Preventive Measures to Combat Terrorism in the Slovak Republic, and no. 513/1999
- Timetable for Implementation of the Pre-accession Pact on Organized Crime. Also SVK MP were appointed as a coordinator for the implementation of the integrated security systems for the protection of important objects of the Ministry of Defense.
Military Police have always been actively involved in the preparation and implementation of the reforms of the Ministry of Defence. On 01 January 2000, it underwent a partial reform, the aim of which was to come up with a long-term plan in the development of the Military Police capabilities. The Slovak Military Police, after their reorganization on 01 January 2000, worked as a separate component directly subordinated to the Chief of the General Staff of the Army of the Slovak Republic. MP were administratively reorganized into management and services to cover the territorial needs.
In 2003, the predominant law enforcement state components, in which the Military Police were involved, were asked to exercise their law enforcement preventive measures and security actions inside state installations. The MP laid the emphasis on ensuring the protection of state military property, authorized access of persons and vehicles to the military facilities, fight against terrorism and organized crime, protection against abuse of alcoholic beverages and protection of non-smokers, with the aim of ensuring the implementation of The National Program for the Fight Against Drugs in 2003 with a view to 2008 within the Armed Forces and to ensure the rights and interests of protected by soldiers.
One of the most important years for Slovakia, after the Velvet Revolution when socialism fell down, was the year 2004, when Slovakia joined NATO. As a consequence, the organizational changes were conducted inside the Slovak Armed Forces, which also directly affected activities of the Military Police. Particular attention was put upon MP units to be deployed as a part of UN peacekeeping missions. A special training was developed for them and additionally units were equipped with new specialized police equipment.
The main effort of the military police engagement at that time was to provide qualified accomplishment of the tasks and to take adequate measures derived from the government program - combating crime and action plan to fight corruption.
On the basis of Law no. 240/2005 Coll., amending and supplementing the Law of the Military Police no. 124/1992 Coll., the new order was issued by the Secretary of Defense, where Military Police were directly subordinated to the Minister of Defense of the Slovak Republic in order to be an independent institution when conducting investigation of military personnel. MP went through the reorganization process once again. The new organizational structure was developed in accordance with operational needs of the SAF, and as a consequence, PE number of the Military Police increased. The new organizational structure of the Military Police was approved by the Minister of Defense, which came into effect on 1 July 2005.
In addition to that, the Military Police provide security to the military facilities and personnel and support the operations of the Armed Forces. The Military Police are assigned to the Slovak Armed Forces military units conducting foreign joint operations with Allies.
Last reorganization of the Military Police was conducted in 2017 as a result the following structure was implemented.
The picture above indicates the current SVK MP organizational structure. Chief of the Military Police is directly subordinated to the Minister of Defense. Crime Investigation Service is under primary control of the Chief of the Military Police. Territorial Police departments have incorporated Traffic Service, Discipline Order Adherence Service, Security Service, and Military Working Dog Service.
JURISDICTION, CAPABILITIES and TASKS
The Military Police perform their duties in accordance with Act No. 124/1992 on the Military Police.
The scope of MP tasks is as follows:
• participate in ensuring the discipline and order at military facilities, and places where military missions or military actions are conducted,
• participate with the military´s support regarding promotion of discipline as well as public order,
• detect crimes and identify perpetrators, take measures to prevent crimes,
• act on crimes under special regulations, detect misdemeanors, identify their perpetrators and investigate actors,
• search for strugglers, lost soldiers and military material, as well as for other state property administered or used by the MOD,
• participate in protection of weapons, ammunitions, explosives and military material and the property of state or important material administered by the MOD which is used by defense,
• support protection of classified materials,
• supervise military traffic and operational safety of military motor vehicles, trailers and road traffic of motor and non-motor vehicles,
• supervise safety of road traffic involving armed forces vehicles and safety in operation of other vehicles on military bases and installations, and approve roadworthiness of military vehicles,
• control road traffic of military vehicles, motor and non-motor vehicles,
• supervise training and qualification improvement of the military vehicles drivers,
• administer registration of the military vehicles and approve their technical capability under a special regulation,
• administer registers and statistics necessary for fulfillment of MP tasks,
• use service dogs ( K9) for securing of military properties, law enforcement and drug prevention as well as for UXO, weapons and drugs searching,
• provide personal protection for the Minister of Defence,
• provide personal security for the persons determined by the MOD Minister,
• provide personal security for the persons determined by the Minister in wartime, in state of war, and state of emergency,
• provide personal security for the persons determined by the Minister, under
§ 4, Act No. 321/2002 Coll. The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic.
In order to accomplish their tasks, the Military Police use technical equipment, vehicles with the right of way and means of transport including air transport means determined by the Minister.
Department of Training and Cynology works with the Ministry of Interior in the exchange of knowledge in training and deployment of dogs in the performance of services in the following sections:
• use and deployment of dogs in Military Police patrolling,
• use and deployment of dogs in drug detection,
• use and deployment of dogs in detection of explosives.
MP also cooperate with the Ministry of Interior during joint recurrent training, which are organized by MP units on a rotation basis. There is also a practical exchange of experience and knowledge.
The main tasks:
• training of MP canine staff, dogs and their handlers as well as MWDs (Military Working Dogs) and handlers,
• organization and management of annual reviews, qualifications of MWDs, controls of their training and their use in military service,
• control of treatment, care and feeding of MWD,
• administering the central register of MWDs, handlers, and approved private kennels,
• storing the samples of drugs, narcotics, explosives and precursors for the training of dogs,
• ensure personal safety of MP (during escorts, illegal entry into military sites),
• search for perpetrators (follow of scent trails of perpetrators in military facilities),
• search for illegal substances smuggled by military personnel (during departures and arrivals – when deploy/return to/from foreign mission),
• controls of VIPs’ equipment and luggage as a preventive and safety measures,
• control of persons and luggage in the public areas when military action takes place as a preventive and safety measures.
Military Police officers have the opportunity to learn in following institutions:
Within the military domain:
• Department of Training and Cynology MP Vlkanova Hronsek,
• MTA - Lest,
• Armed Forces - Training Battalion – Martin,
• Academy of the Slovak Armed Forces - Liptovsky Mikulas.
Outside the military service:
• Police Academy –Bratislava,
• High school Police –Bratislava and Kosice,
• Forensic expertise institute in Bratislava, Kosice
• MP JOC in MPCOE (Bydgoszcz - POL),
• MP SOC in MPCOE (Bydgoszcz - POL),
• MP SrNOC in MPCOE (Bydgoszcz - POL),
• MP LL SOC in MPCOE (Bydgoszcz - POL),
• MP Captains career course ( USA),
• MP Officer Course (GER – Oberamergau ),
• Training units in MTA (Hohenfels – GER),
• MP course in SP COE (ITA - Vincenza),
• Combat life savers course (Grafenwoehr – GER)
• Language course PAT and MAT (GER - Garmisch),
• Current presence of military officers in the operation.
MP designated personnel participate into the NATO conferences, forums, work-shops of NATO MP Community of Interest (MP COI) and support the Military Police Centre of Excellence ( NATO MP COE) which was established in 2013 in Bydgoszcz, Poland.
1. UN Peace Keeping Mission in Cyprus – UNFICYP:
The aim and mission statement of UNFICYP is to maintain the status quo inside the buffer zone (zone between Republic of Cyprus and the North Cyprus Turkish Republic). UN ensures compliance with the ceasefire between the parties of conflict, helps to restore and maintain law and order on the island and carry out humanitarian tasks.
- Powers of arrest over all members of UNFICYP,
- Power to search property and personnel who are arrested,
- Take into custody any person committing offences or causing a disturbance at any UNFICYP installation and hand them over to the appropriate police authority,
- Conduct contraband searches or other searches as determined by the Chief of Mission,
- Seize UNFICYP property or the property of UNFICYP personnel when it is considered an evidence of committed crime or when possession is considered contrary to UNFICYP regulations,
- Investigation of all Cyprus-wide criminal, non-criminal and military offences relating to all UNFICYP personnel and property,
- Provision of island-wide police patrols to react to and reduce crime or road traffic incidents relating to UNFICYP personnel,
- Conduct customs checks on UN flights,
- All police matters on the UNPA and other UNFICYP installations,
- Provide a Crime Scene Investigation capability.
2. Resolute Support- Afghanistan
The objective of the mission is to provide training, advice and assistance for the Afghan security forces and institutions as well as counter-terror and combat.
3. ALTHEA - Bosna and Hercegovina
European Union Force Althea (EUFOR Althea) is a military deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina which is to oversee the military implementation of the Dayton Agreement. It is the successor to NATO's SFOR and IFOR. The transition from SFOR to EUFOR was mainly a change of name and commanders. It replaced SFOR on 2 December 2004.
EUNAVFOR MED SOPHIA
The aim of this new operation launched by Europe is to undertake systematic efforts to identify, capture and dispose of vessels, as well as enable assets used or suspected of being used by migrant smugglers or traffickers. The Juncker Commission, in particular the HR Federica Mogherini, views this operation as a fundamental contribution to fighting instability in the region, and as a way to reduce the loss of lives at sea and increase the security of citizens of the European Union.
Participation in joint international projects.
NATO MNMPBAT project - supports activity of MP. This project assumes the allocation of members of MP destined for the tasks in an international environment, where they are in the role of battalion headquarters, as well as a separate unit MP. MN Military Police Battalion is established by 4 following countries: Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic.
Military Police personnel may be assigned to maintain public order, checkpoints establishment, and route enforcement, crime investigation, to patrol their areas of operation or to provide convoy security. Air support can be requested in case of emergency in support of MNMPBAT operations.
Overview of joint exercises:
Black Bear - 2008, Poland
Black Bear - 2009, Czech Republic
Black Bear - 2010, Croatia
Black Bear - 2011, Slovak Republic
International training 80 MP members in 2011, Hohenfels, Germany
Sharp Lynx - 2012, Poland
International training 45 MP members in 2013, Hohenfels, Germany
Crystal Eagle - 2013, Germany
Capable Logistician - 2013, Slovak Republic
Sharp Lynx – 2014, Czech Republic
Compact Eagle - 2015, Poland
Anakonda - 2016, Poland
Saber Strike - 2017, Poland, Germany